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Pre-Optometry Professional Society

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Pre-Optometry Professional Society

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Optometry Related News

Optometry Related News

Optometry Today

Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects 0.1 percent to 0.6 percent of the population and is estimated to affect as many as four million people in the United States. This is roughly equivalent to the same number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, only just over one million individuals have been diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome.

This gap alludes to the difficulty in identifying the disease because it has an incipient course and initially presents with non-specific symptoms. Many of the symptoms present early in the disease may be confused with other matters common to such items as menopause, medication side effects, and non-specific aging changes. As a result, the time between initiation of symptoms associated with the disease and a confirmatory diagnosis is often 3.5 years or longer.

Sjögren’s syndrome may also present as a primary disease, meaning it occurs alone, or as a secondary disorder, occurring along with other chronic inflammatory disorders—most commonly rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, or polymyositis. The disease is found in both sexes, affects females roughly nine times more than males, and occurs in virtually any age range. The “typical” patient is female, Caucasian, and of middle to older age.

Sjögren Pathophysiology

The key factor of the disease is exocrine gland dysfunction where the body’s immune system begins to attack several key secretory glands, including the lacrimal and salivary glands. As such, two of the primary clinical features are keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia, which are hallmark of the clinical diagnosis.

However, this is only the tip of the iceberg. The disease often also affects other organ systems, including the nervous system, skin, lungs, and kidneys...

(To read more, click blue title link above)

Optometry Today

Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects 0.1 percent to 0.6 percent of the population and is estimated to affect as many as four million people in the United States. This is roughly equivalent to the same number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, only just over one million individuals have been diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome.

This gap alludes to the difficulty in identifying the disease because it has an incipient course and initially presents with non-specific symptoms. Many of the symptoms present early in the disease may be confused with other matters common to such items as menopause, medication side effects, and non-specific aging changes. As a result, the time between initiation of symptoms associated with the disease and a confirmatory diagnosis is often 3.5 years or longer.

Sjögren’s syndrome may also present as a primary disease, meaning it occurs alone, or as a secondary disorder, occurring along with other chronic inflammatory disorders—most commonly rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, or polymyositis. The disease is found in both sexes, affects females roughly nine times more than males, and occurs in virtually any age range. The “typical” patient is female, Caucasian, and of middle to older age.

Sjögren Pathophysiology

The key factor of the disease is exocrine gland dysfunction where the body’s immune system begins to attack several key secretory glands, including the lacrimal and salivary glands. As such, two of the primary clinical features are keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia, which are hallmark of the clinical diagnosis.

However, this is only the tip of the iceberg. The disease often also affects other organ systems, including the nervous system, skin, lungs, and kidneys...

(To read more, click blue title link above)

OAT Quiz of the Week

(If you get a 100 on one of the quizzes for every month, you'll earn member points! Points will be added during the end of the month.)

OAT Quiz of the Week

(If you get a 100 on one of the quizzes for every month, you'll earn member points! Points will be added during the end of the month.)

Welcome to your OAT Practice Quiz

1) Which of the following are always considered terminal functional groups?
2) Those examples of poetic justice that occur in medieval and Elizabethan literature, and that seem so satisfying, have encouraged a whole school of twentieth-century scholars to "find" further examples. In fact, these scholars have merely forced victimized character into a moral framework by which the injustices inflicted on them are, somehow or other, justified. Such scholars deny that the sufferers in a tragedy are innocent; they blame the victims themselves for their tragic fates. Any misdoing is enough to subject a character to critical whips. Thus, there are long essays about the misdemeanors of Webster’s Duchess of Malfi, who defined her brothers, and he behavior of Shakespeare’s Desdemona, who disobeyed her father.\n\nYet it should be remembered that the Renaissance writer Matteo Bandello strongly protests the injustice of the severe penalties issued to women for acts of disobedience that men could, and did, commit with virtual impunity. And Shakespeare, Chaucer, and Webster often enlist their readers on the side of their tragic heroines by describing injustices so cruel that readers cannot but join in protest. By portraying Griselda, in the Clerk’s Tale, as a meek, gentle victim who does not criticize, much less rebel against the prosecutor, her husband Waltter, Chaucer incites readers to espouse Griselda’s cause against Walter’s oppression. Thus, efforts to supply historical and theological rationalization for Walter’s persecutions tend to turn Chaucer’s fable upside down, to deny its most obvious effect on reader’s sympathies. Similarly, to assert that Webster’s Duchess deserved torture and death because she chose to marry the man she loved and to bear their children is, in effect to join forces with her tyrannical brothers, and so to confound the operation of poetic justice, of which readers should approve, with precisely those examples of social injustice that Webster does everything in his power to make readers condemn. Indeed. Webster has his heroin so heroically lead the resistance to tyranny that she may well in spire members of the audience to imaginatively join forces with her against the cruelty and hypocritical morality of her brothers. Thus Chaucer and Webster, in their different ways, attack injustice, argue on behalf of the victims, and prosecute the persecutors. Their readers serve them as a court of appeal that remains free to rule, as the evidence requires, and as common humanity requires, in favour of the innocent and injured parties. For, to paraphrase the noted eighteenth-century scholar, Samuel Johnson, despite all the refinements of subtlety and the dogmatism of learning, it is by the common sense and compassion of readers who are uncorrupted by the characters and situations in mereval and Dlizabetahn literature, as in any other literature, can best be judged.

According to the passage, some twentieth-century scholars have written at length about...

3) A object is placed at the center of curvature of a concave mirror. The image it creates must be...
4) If sinθ = 1/2cosθ, and 0 < θ < π/2, the value of 1/2sinθ is...

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Diagnosis of the Week

Diagnosis of the Week

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes.

Over time, diabetes damages the blood vessels in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when these tiny blood vessels leak blood and other fluids. This causes the retinal tissue to swell, resulting in cloudy or blurred vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.

Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include:

  • Seeing spots or floaters
  • Blurred vision
  • Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision
  • Difficulty seeing well at night

When people with diabetes experience long periods of high blood sugar, fluid can accumulate in the lens inside the eye that controls focusing. This changes the curvature of the lens, leading to blurred vision. However, once blood sugar levels are controlled, blurred distance vision will improve. Patients with diabetes who can better control their blood sugar levels will slow the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

 

Treatment of diabetic retinopathy varies depending on the extent of the disease. People with diabetic retinopathy may need laser surgery to seal leaking blood vessels or to discourage other blood vessels from leaking. Your optometrist might need to inject medications into the eye to decrease inflammation or stop the formation of new blood vessels. People with advanced cases of diabetic retinopathy might need a surgical procedure to remove and replace the gel-like fluid in the back of the eye, called the vitreous. Surgery may also be needed to repair a retinal detachment. This is a separation of the light-receiving lining in the back of the eye.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes.

Over time, diabetes damages the blood vessels in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when these tiny blood vessels leak blood and other fluids. This causes the retinal tissue to swell, resulting in cloudy or blurred vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.

Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include:

  • Seeing spots or floaters
  • Blurred vision
  • Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision
  • Difficulty seeing well at night

When people with diabetes experience long periods of high blood sugar, fluid can accumulate in the lens inside the eye that controls focusing. This changes the curvature of the lens, leading to blurred vision. However, once blood sugar levels are controlled, blurred distance vision will improve. Patients with diabetes who can better control their blood sugar levels will slow the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

 

Treatment of diabetic retinopathy varies depending on the extent of the disease. People with diabetic retinopathy may need laser surgery to seal leaking blood vessels or to discourage other blood vessels from leaking. Your optometrist might need to inject medications into the eye to decrease inflammation or stop the formation of new blood vessels. People with advanced cases of diabetic retinopathy might need a surgical procedure to remove and replace the gel-like fluid in the back of the eye, called the vitreous. Surgery may also be needed to repair a retinal detachment. This is a separation of the light-receiving lining in the back of the eye.

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